Ten shows of the Flamenco Biennial


With an incredible performance the Bienal de Flamenco 2.018 began this year in Seville. It was Israel Galván who had the honor of going out through the big door of the Maestranza, dancing and making the audience enjoy the whole evening. Starting this way at the beginning of a few weeks where flamenco will tour different places of the city, from last day 6 until next October 30.
From here we are going to mention 10 shows that you should not miss from the XX Bienal de Flamenco.
On Monday the 10th at Real Alcázar, Argentina will arrive with its pure flamenco, with Habitat we will be seduced by this artist who devours the stage with her presence
Rosarío La Tremendina has flamenco in her blood, great-granddaughter of Enriqueta la Pescaera, daughter of José el Tremendo, who will leave her show La Fuerza on Monday the 10th at the Café Alameda.

In the Real Alcázar on Wednesday 12, you can enjoy one of the most anticipated shows of this edition with Carmen Linares, Ghalia Benali, Fahmi Alqhai, Dani de Morón, Mariví Blasco, Accademia del Piacere and Kiya Tabassian with “Romances between the East and Occidente “, the Andalusian art of the last Moriscos who inhabited Granada, mixed with Andalusian folklore.
Rosario Toledo, David Palomar, José Anillo, El Junco, Ana Salazar, María Moreno, Samara Montáñez, Anabel Ribera, Eduardo Guerrero, Rafael Rodríguez, Óscar Lago, Roberti Jaén and Juan José Villar with Flamenco de la Tacita to the art of their flight XX Edition, at the Hotel Triana next Thursday, the 13th.
With this show we can see how flamenco is able to interpret different literary works and pass on to the viewer, in D.Quixote the Company of Andrés Marín will demonstrate it to us, next Sunday, the 16th.
On Sunday the 16th it will be the turn of María Terremoto with “La Huella de mi sentío”, which arrives after having obtained the Giraldillo Revelacion of the Bienal de Flamenco, the youngest artist in history to achieve it.
The Israel Galván Company with Pastora Galván with La Edad de Oro, which has been performing for 18 years, will be at the Lope de Vega Theater on Wednesday, the 19th.
The Flamenco Ballet of Andalusia will perform on Monday 24th under the direction of Rafael Estevéz with the show “Flamencolorquiano”, where the surrealist, avant-garde and flamenco are mixed, remembering the figure of Lorca.
The young star Rosalia will perform on Friday 28 at the Café Alameda, mixing flamenco with different influences from the artist, presenting “El Mal Querer”, showing the audience a varied repertoire that will not leave anyone indifferent.

The closing concert on the 30th will come from the hand of Dorantes, uniting flamenco and piano in a single being, who debuted at the Biennial 20 years ago and left the audience open-mouthed. The stage will be the Port of Seville, with free admission for those who want to enjoy it.

8 material goods World Heritage of Andalusia.

This denomination, is not only a title, but it also gives protection, disclosure and possibility of financing to recover and consolidate them and that the rest of humanity can enjoy them due to their historical and anthropological character. Many of these assets represent the footprint of the different cultures that passed through our region that are testimony to this.The World Heritage properties located in Andalusia that we will describe are:

  1. The city of Granada located in the vega of the same name with the incomparable setting of the white landscape of Sierra Nevada, shows us the Albaicín, a neighborhood of Arab origin with its steep zigzagging streets and its flavor reminiscent of Nasrid times. We can also enjoy walks through the river Darro and up through the neighborhood to the viewpoint of San Cristóbal, from where we can see the main monument of the city, the Nazari Palace of the Alhambra, the red, for its initial decoration , where we can get lost among its different rooms such as the Abencerrajes or the famous Patio de los Leones with its marble lions fountain restored. The decoration of the palace with its. Within the same Nasrid palace from the 13th century, we find the palace of Charles V of Renaissance origin. Near the Alhambra, we find the gardens of the Generalife, a garden for the enjoyment of the Taifa kings with numerous ornamental plant species and that reminds us of past times and where romantic travelers like Washington Irving were inspired.

ALHAMBRA DE GRANADA ALHAMBRA DE GRANADA

  •  Mosque of Córdoba, Judería and Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos. The city of Córdoba as a whole is also part of this list where we can discover the zigzag streets of the Jewish quarter, with balconies and whitewashed houses and patios decorated with flowers.  Walking through the Jewish quarter we arrive at the Mezquita -Cathedral, a building whose origin was a Visigothic church of which there are remains although most of the construction date from the 9th-10th century during the time of the Abderramán caliphs, where we can contemplate the arches of half a point combined with horseshoe arches on Roman columns used for this.  We can contemplate the mihrab and the quibla as well as the later constructions of the Christian era such as Gothic domes and the minaret transformed into a Renaissance tower. Do not forget to visit the Alcazar de los Reyes Cristianos, a palace of Roman origin, transformed from the Islamic period and the residence of Muslim and Christian gyrfalcons after the conquest.
    mezquita cordoba mosque cordoba
  • Alcazar, Cathedral and Archive of the Indies of Seville. The Alcazar represents a building built in X century and later reforms of which we got most of the Mudejar era with Muslim decoration in the fourteenth century, geometric type and huge rooms decorated with gilded domes, a dream palace to enjoy full of history. Recently, the Palace of King Taifa poet Almotamid, from the 11th century, has been discovered and will be included in the protection zone. The Cathedral of Seville is the second largest in Christianity, where various styles such as Gothic, Renaissance, Neo-Gothic and the remains of a minaret (Giralda) with almost 100 meters high and a courtyard of Almohad origin that creates a contrast worthy of contemplation with the patio of the orange trees and a source of Visigothic origin.  The last of the buildings is the Archivo de Indias, initially the academy founded by Murillo and today archive of documents related to the time of Spanish America, today also home to numerous artistic and cultural exhibitions.
    alcazar de sevilla Alcazar of Seville
  •  Historical centers of Úbeda and Baeza: The two cities of Jaén are a cluster of monuments of Renaissance origin constituted as masterpieces of the architect Andrés de Valdenvira, with its cobbled streets, churches like El Salvador in Úbeda, the cathedral of Baeza and many places like the headquarters of the UNIA that are true examples of Renaissance beauty. The two cities allow us to submerge in the sixteenth century and the structure of its streets and buildings has hardly changed at that time.
    catedral de baeza Baeza Cathedral
  • Doñana National Park: Constitutes the natural World Heritage, the most important wetland in Europe with important animal species such as the imperial eagle and the Iberian lynx, emblems of the Iberian fauna. Doñana is a paradise for birds and a place for ornithological tourism linked to the Aldea del Rocío, as a tradition nestled in an enviable natural space. Doñana, although it is within the protection of UNESCO, always has threats either by nature or by the scourge of the human being.
  •  It shows us a set of places related to rock art, with a naturalistic and narrative art, an exclusive cultural manifestation of this geographical area. It is framed within the Levantine Art whose Andalusian part is located in Jaén, Granada and Almería, in which four nuclei can be distinguished that, grouped geographically, would be those of the Region of the Vélez (Almería and Granada) and those of Sierra Morena, Quesada and Sierra de Segura in Jaén. The Levantine paintings were made in shallow shelters and even in vertical walls, most of which contain only paintings, usually figures with simple profiles and flat inks.
  • Dolmens of Antequera: Constituted by the Dolmen of the Menga, Viera and Romeral, located in Antequera (Málaga). It constitutes a monumental megalithic group of great importance in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. The three prehistoric monuments are located in the background of two landscapes worthy of contemplation such as the Peña de los enamorados (that mountain in the form of a sleeping face) and the natural space of the Torcal de Antequera. The dolmen of the Menga and Viera are two sepulchral megalithic monuments in the form of a corridor, formed by blocks of stones superimposed and covered by a mound.  The romeral is a tomb in the shape of Tholos (circular construction), underground with a vaulted chamber covered with masonry.
  • Medina Azahara: city of residence of the caliphs founded a few kilometers from the capital of Cordoba, back in the tenth century by a promise of Caliph Abderramán III to his wife Azahara according to legend. Sus Its palaces and luxurious buildings decorated with horseshoe arches, showed the luxury of the caliphal court and salons like the ambassadors that today thanks to virtual reality we can contemplate.  Nowadays it is even possible to visit it at night which gives a beauty to this monument, recently named a World Heritage Site and which becomes the last of the places, for the moment, with this denomination.

Ten beaches to get lost in Andalusia.


The region of Andalusia, located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, offers us more than 600 kilometers of coastline and also many kilometers of beach. These beaches are special places to enjoy the marine waters during the summer and also in a time other than the summer. The different geographical features show us different types of beach and coastline.
Whether located in the Atlantic or the Mediterranean, we find beaches with white, golden, black sand or stones, whether marine or volcanic. Andalusia has beaches on flat coasts or coasts with cliffs. This is the geographical and natural wealth that we can discover many spaces. The beaches to cover lost in our region are the following that we will indicate below:
Beach of the parador (Huelva). This beach located in the province of Huelva and located in the natural area of ​​Doñana, is one of the most beautiful in Huelva. Its privileged location, open to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by pine trees and with hardly any urbanization, makes it a corner away from the madding crowd. The only construction is the national inn of Mazagón. This beach is a continuation of the Doñana National Park and contains protected species such as the Iberian lynx. On June 24, 2017, its pine forests suffered a forest fire that devastated more than eight thousand hectares, ending with many species and destroying the natural access to the beach. Today this beach and this natural space are recovering.

playa del parador. Jose A.


Beach that Cuesta Maneli (Huelva). Continuing with the previous beach and similar characteristics, we found this beach in the same natural area of ​​Doñana with the exception of having a small cliff called Asperillo cliff. The only construction located in this area is the camping but its pine forests invite us to a walk in the nature and its beach open to the Atlantic without hardly receiving east wind, they allow us to enjoy the coast and a clean water.

PLaya de Cuesta Maneli.Autor Ricardo Ramirez Gisbert


Levante beach (Cádiz). Located in the port of Santa María, as a continuation to the urbanized beach of Valdelagrana. This one that in 1989, the natural park Bay of Cádiz will be created, this beach was like a redoubt without urbanizing and a place of wild nature. The beach is more than two kilometers long, with fine sand and surrounded by dunes, and pipes that flood with the rise of the tide. This place, due to the frequency of its winds, is a place for water sports, however this activity is declining due to the fact that this zone of protection and nesting of species such as the little terns or black-legged plover.

Playa de Levante.autor el Pantera

Beach of the castle (Cádiz). It constitutes the continuity in the beach of Camposoto, in San Fernando. This beach was formerly a field for military maneuvers, however since 1989, they are part of the natural park of the Bay of Cádiz. This beach can only be accessed by walking, swimming or with small boats and we can contemplate the castle of Sancti Petri, with waters similar to the Caribbean Sea.
Beach of Bolonia (Cádiz). Located in the vicinity of the Strait of Gibraltar, to vote constantly for the winds that make it a paradise for water sports. This beach has a spectacular dune that is constantly moving and in some cases covers the road. It is a beach with crystal clear waters looking towards Africa and with the only human construction of the ruins of the Roman city of Bologna.

Playa de Bolonia. autor Anual


Beach of Valdevaqueros (Cádiz). Near the previous beach located in the natural park of the Strait, with another spectacular dune, is another one of those beaches without urbanizing in addition paradise of birds and zone of ornithological observation. This area is a meeting place for lovers of windsurfing and kitesurfing. A place of nature and sport to enjoy.
Beach of the Lances (Cádiz). Following the previous beach, within the same natural area, with the same type of dunes, surrounded by lagoons and marshes and an immense pine forest, is this beach, near the town of Tarifa, where for its location close to Africa, it is a zone of passage and nesting of numerous species of birds. This place together with all those located in the area of ​​the Strait of Gibraltar is a place for lovers of water sports.

Beach of Cabo Pino (Málaga). If it is difficult to find a corner of the Costa del Sol without urbanizing, it is more difficult to find a really virgin beach, but in the crowded Marbella, it is possible to find an oasis, a haven of peace and nature in Cabo Pino and be able to contemplate, the cord of more than 20 kilometers that form the dunes of Artola, a place to practice naturism.
Calas del Pino (Malaga), located east of Nerja, is a small beach of just over 300 meters and whose access is down through a very steep slope of more than 200 meters, however, the result deserves Sorry, we can already see the image of a beach with crystal clear waters where it seems that the hand of man has never made a dent in it. A paradise of calm and green waters of which we can enjoy without hardly visitors even in summer time.
Cala del Pino.Autor Por los caminos de Malaga


Catarrijan beach (Granada). With this beach we open the beaches formed by stone, but without a doubt, this form of land, allows to have a crystal clear water and its small size of something more than 300 meters make it a privileged place for the practice of scuba diving and snorkeling. Its location within the natural park of Maro-Cerro Gordo, turns the place into a paradise where you can contemplate spectacular sunsets.
Playa de la Rijana (Granada): Located near Castell de Ferro, this beach of gravel and sand, only 200 meters long and a small beach bar to enjoy fried fish or cocktails in a special place for diving, precisely because of the lack of human infrastructure
.

Cove of Enmedio (Almería). One of the most spectacular coves in Andalusia, located in the natural park of Cabo de Gata, where we can see forms of rocks that are fossilized dunes and crystal clear water that falls from the rocks as if forming pools, on a virgin beach without services and that maintains the power to protect nature. A beach that is difficult to access but which should be visited because it is worthwhile just to dive through its paradisiacal waters.
cala de Enmedio


Playa de los Genoveses (Almería): also located in Cabo de Gata. Another beach in Almería, with more than 1200 meters and with a volcanic promontory that shows the geological beauty of this space where numerous films have been shot and that still constitutes one of the virgin spaces of Andalusia.
For the beaches of Almeria and Cabo de Gata, we will speak later due to its variety and quantity of ecosystems. It serves this small sample, in this post to enjoy our beaches and the richness of our coasts.

8 monumental walled enclosures in Andalusia (I)


As we indicated in previous posts, the region of Andalusia was an area of ​​passage and establishment of different cultures. For centuries these cultures have protected their cities and towns from their enemies with walled enclosures and had a purely military character in defending themselves.

These walls were initially of coarse form created with wooden structures to evolve to other structures more elaborated with materials like adobe, stone, mortar or brick and that usually surrounded the cities with a series of watchtowers and access and exit doors.

These structures have maintained their function over the centuries and were impregnable in many cases keeping their citizens protected and creating security in the urban area. This defensive function was lost from the fourteenth century, since with the use of gunpowder and artillery, the walls became more vulnerable.

Today, the walls of numerous localities in our region have reached us in a better or worse state as a monument, witnessing a time in question since probably many buildings contemporary to its construction disappeared due to the monumental progress or insensitivity that made They will reach our days.

The walled enclosures indicate not only how the civilizations that passed through were defended, but also what form they had to build and what materials were used for them. Many of them, great builders with very advanced techniques for their time, which has allowed us that these structures arrive in good condition to our time.

We will mention some of the walled enclosures located in our region for centuries and that constitute a monumental and artistic resource.


1Muralla Almohade de Sevilla: this wall surrounded what today constitutes the historic center of the city of Seville. It was built in the 12th century, by the Almohad dynasty, in the last years of the Muslim domination of the Iberian Peninsula. This wall was one of the extensions of the original Roman wall of which we have left vestige today. Initially it surrounded all the old helmet but today only we have arrived a part that begins in the Arc of the Macarena, surrounding the historical round until the Gardens of the Valley, another part of the wall that is in good state is located in the Royals Alcazars and the Jewish quarter.

muralla de la macarena

The wall, is formed by a series of lookout towers in very good condition but vulnerable to weather and weather. This type of colossal construction, last part on the part of the almohades, shows how was this town from North Africa, because although it was austere and conservative in its religious beliefs, at the time of building, it showed buildings and structures at a certain point megalómanas as the case of the Giralda and the materials used for the wall, a kind of mortar similar to concrete that has reached our times almost a thousand years later and that has only suffered the destruction on the part of the human being. The legend tells that Julio Cesar sacrificed a son to the gods and with his blood he made the mixture to create the wall. A fact that is historical was that in 1936, the wall was used as a firing squad in the Civil War.

Wall of Carmona: The city of Carmona, located on the top of a plateau that rises over the countryside at almost 250 meters high with a privileged view, has a wall with great history. The section that has arrived is located in the Puerta de Sevilla, near its Alcázar, and we can see a structure with stone ashlars whose origin is Carthaginian, although the subsequent Roman reforms and extensions by the Islamic civilization has led to to the rest of the structures where we can contemplate the different square structures, battlements and fortress towers although the most impressive part is its entrance door with a half point arch and the use of stones with mortar, typical of the Almohads.

Muralla de Carmona

Wall of Palma del Rio: The Cordovan town located at the confluence of the river Genil and Guadalquivir, also has an Almohad-style wall that would not have been preserved had it not been for the European FEDER funds that have allowed its restoration. The town is already mentioned in the time of the Caliphate, specifically mentioned by Bishop Eulogio back in the ninth century. The wall is of almohade invoice probably of century XII and five towers defined a pentagonal space, united by the walls. Its structure is similar to that of Seville and the materials used are practically the same. We have remains of what could be a citadel or castle of this era with a plaque that recalls that in the fourteenth century, after the conquest of Andalusia by Christians, was created in that same enclosure, a brotherhood to protect Andalusia from the Islamic attacks.

muralla de Palma del rio

Muralla de Marchena: Located in the countryside in the direction of the southeast, we find another town with a wall of Almohad origin also and that surrounded what was known as the ancient city or Medina. These walls had a defensive part for the city and also for the precinct of the Alcazaba. From this wall came the Morón Tower, square in shape, with a horseshoe arch and from which part was torn down to give access to a street, the Arco de la Rosa, a very beautiful and restored archway that leads directly to the Alcazar, and the semicircular tower of the Puerta de Sevilla. In worse conditions but also as a vestige the remains located in the Ducal palace have arrived.

muralla de marchena

Wall of Cabra: The city of Cabra, which is part of the Route of the Caliphate, naturally has its wall and medieval Islamic type. The situation of the city in the upper zone that dominates the entire Córdoba subbetic sierra, forced to wall the city and protect it not only from the Christians but from the internal revolts within the different regimes that governed Al-Andalus. The function of the wall was to protect especially the palace -Alcázar. The part of the wall that has arrived in good condition today is the one next to the Church of the Assumption and Angeles, with a tower the massive cylindrical tower and the remains of another destroyed by an earthquake in the seventeenth century.

muralla de cabra

Niebla: located in the Condado area, in Huelva, a wine region par excellence, whose walls are also a vestige of the Andalusian domain of the region, specifically from the Taifa era. It is one of the best preserved of its time, built by sillarejo for the walls in the form of slope and ashlars for the corners. It has five accesses in good condition such as Puerta de Socorro, Puerta de Sevilla, or Puerta del Agua. The wall has suffered many ravages in time, such as the War of Independence against the French at the beginning of the 19th century, however, today this marvel of recognition has arrived.

Wall of Medina Sidonia: The city, which is part of the route of the White Villages and witness of the battle of the Guadalete, back in the early eighth century, also shows another walled enclosure of equal beauty. The city founded in Phoenician times on a hill that dominates, the region of La Janda, has a walled enclosure whose origin is from the Caliphate period in the 10th century. It stands out for this wall with remains of battlements, the Arch of the Shepherdess, with two horseshoe arches, one supported on Roman columns and the other on stone berroqueña. His name comes as there is an altar dedicated to the Divine Shepherdess. Another door or Arch of is the Bethlehem, due to the invocation to this virgin but of this door it is not clear if its origin is Muslim.

muralla de medina sidonia

In this small route of the walled enclosures, we will not forget one of the most remembered and famous in Andalusia. Its origin is also Islamic, it is also due to its foundation probably and it is neither more nor less than the wall of the City of Almeria. The city was founded in the year 955 by Abderraman III as an annex neighborhood of Pechina that came to have its own independence. It is at this time that his citadel and wall began to be built, known as the Caliphal wall. From this time of most and the most important area is located in the area of ​​the street of the Atarazanas. The wall closed the medina, and came down from the Alcazaba to the sea, protecting it from attacks by the Normans. Although there are also taifa remains, the most important part is the caliphal that has been included, together with the Alcazaba, as an archaeological site as a cultural asset.

muralla almeria

With these eight spaces, we closed the first part of a post dedicated to the walled enclosures and their history. In a future post we will report other known sites with history and legend, which constitute a vestige of past civilizations.

The 7 places of epic battles in Andalusia

If our region is characterized by its history and the numerous cultures that have passed and remained, no less important and great were the war episodes and epic battles that took place in different parts of our region during the moments in which the different civilizations they passed.

The strategic situation of Andalusia, between two seas, between two continents and a river valley between two mountain ranges, turned it into places of skirmishes and battles that became epic in some cases.

These battles were in many cases in corners of great natural beauty and its strategic position was given in favor of one of the sides that got control of the objectives they wanted to show.

Of the first civilizations involved in these battles or war episodes, the first civilizations, already showed their fury and the blood was shed based on a conquest that got some, which rewrote history and became owners of it. These battles supposed changes of regime and geopolitical changes and that we will describe.

The first of the battles to be shown, occurred in the year 206 a. cy was between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian empire, which sought control of the Mediterranean Sea and curiously chose a place in the Iberian Peninsula, located a few kilometers from the town of Alcalá del Rio (Seville) as the scene of their war, in which the troops of Publius Scipio the African, defeated the troops of Hasdrubal, in what was one of the episodes of the Second Punic War, and which followed the Battle of Baecula, two years earlier in Baecula, located in the Cerro de las Albahacas in Jaén. It is the so-called Battle of Ilipa Magna

In this battle in which thousands of forces formed by horsemen, infants and in the case of the Carthaginians, elephants, ended with the victory of the Romans and the beginning of the conquest of the peninsula and creation of the embryo of the Roman Empire. From this battle, the town of Itálica was created as a field hospital, which became a residential city and the birthplace of emperors, and which we can still enjoy today.

Without forgetting the Romans, we continue with the epic battles (today difficult to imagine in our time), in the war between Pompey and Cesar that occurred in 45 BC, where they faced about ten legions for each side and more than 50,000 effective. The Battle was somewhere in the Betica and that resulted in the Victory of Cesar against Pompey. The location of the exact place is unknown but it is thought that it could be somewhere in the south of the province of Córdoba.

The third battle, takes us to the final era of the Visigoth kingdom, a kingdom that for just over three centuries, lived precariously between the struggles of their nobles, the Byzantine conquests and the rebellion of the Betic area, however the More epic battle, was at the time of its end.

In the year 711, in the reign of Rodrigo, the sons of the former King Witiza, who had been deposed, allied with the Muslims who had recently come from North Africa to overthrow the king they considered usurping, however, these Muslims ordered of the caudillo Tarik and that at the same time received orders of the governor of Ifriquiya, Muza, did not have in his plans to allow another godo in the government of Hispania although if I use the children of Witiza in their plans.

In the summer of 712, forces formed by Tarik (around 12,000) and King Rodrigo’s troops (around 30,000) fought in a battle somewhere in the course of the Guadalete River a few kilometers from the town of Arcos de la Frontera (Cádiz). That Battle was known as the Battle of the Guadalete and was the disastrous end of the Visigoth Kingdom and the beginning of Muslim rule that would extend over seven centuries. There is no trace of this battle, but the towns such as Medina Sidonia or Arcos, were among the first to have a typically Muslim distribution.

The fourth battle, takes us concretely to 1212, in a town called Santa Elena, where the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa took place. This battle faced the Almohad empire against the kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon, Castile, Leon and French volunteers and Occitan who had joined the crusade call before the North African empire, which constituted a totalitarian and ultra fundamentalist state that threatened peace in Europe . The battle initially in unequal numbers as Muslims tripled their contenders and the beginning was uncertain however a series of book errors and flaws in strategy moved the balance in favor of Christians crushing the Almohad empire, meaning its end and the beginning of the definitive conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Christian kingdoms.

After the medieval battles and conquest, Spain expanded throughout the world and its battles moved to other parts of the globe. The following and therefore fifth battle, occurred precisely at the time of decline of the Hispanic empire, and it was precisely for another emerging empire.

The fifth battle would take place, in the year 1805, in front of Cape Trafalgar in Cádiz, specifically in the area known as the Caños de Meca. The battle was between the British Royal Navy with about 30 ships and a Franco-Spanish coalition, with some more ships. The English expedition was commanded by Admiral Nelson and the Franco-Spanish by Gravina and Villeneuve. The battle was won by the British with an overwhelming defeat that supposed practically the end of the maritime hegemony of the Spanish empire

The sixth battle, would take place in the year 1808, was given in Bailen (Jaén) the battle of Bailen, being another episode of the Wars of Independence against Napoleon, where forces of more than 20,000 troops on both sides (General Castaños for Spain and General Dupont, by the French). In this battle, they won the Hispanic troops and supposed the exit of Jose I and the direct intervention of Napoleón, a hard and decisive blow for the French, although it would suppose equally the aim of the Spanish empire.

The last of the battles, would occur in the twentieth century and naturally occur in the course of the Civil War, between 1936-1939. Actually the Spanish Civil War had a point of interest and conquest in Andalusia, especially by the proximity to the Strait of Gibraltar, and the protectorate of Morocco. Seville, Malaga, Pozoblanco and the battle in the Pedroches, takes us to places of infamous memory that we will describe in future posts.