Church of Santa Catalina

The parish church of Santa Catalina has its origin like the rest of Mudejar churches to the Reconquest of the city. Its location and configuration reveals that in the same place where there existed a Roman temple of pagan cult, on which a Visigoth church was built and later a mosque that is the building they found at the time of the arrival of Christians in the 13th century. Its style is Gothic-Mudejar church, although with modifications throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

It is close to the squares of Ponce de León and the Third, as well as the convent of Our Lady of Peace and Consolation and near the parish of San Pedro and Santiago.
Its configuration we can highlight the layout of the ships, central to two waters, lateral to one, apse with buildings of lower height as well as a cupola of the sacramental chapel and the tower with its auctions in stepped battlements.
The church is of typical rectangular plant with polygonal head, typology of Sevillian Mudejar parish church of century XIV like the rest of the churches of this style of the capital. Its three naves are separated by quadrangular pillars in the shape of a cross on which they support pointed arches of exposed brick, the body of this ship is covered with armor of pair and knuckle, the central stay and the sides hang. However, the presbytery is formed by a ribbed vault with brick ribs with a key and stone carving points.
In the two zones of the lateral walls chapels are opened, being the oldest one that lodges the images of the Brotherhood of the Exaltation, whose location is the wall of the ship of the Epistle, right in the zone of the tower. Its plant is quadrangular and is covered by a vault of cloth on horns, of Mudejar style.
In the initial part of the nave of the Epistle and accessing the right side wall of the Presbytery, is located a funerary chapel, quadrangular with a dome on pendentives, a tombstone at the entrance indicates the date the foundation of the chapel in 1573
At the head of the nave of the Gospel, located in the left zone, is the Sacramental Chapel, a construction of the Sevillian Baroque, being one of the most important examples of this art. Its constructor was Leonardo de Figueroa, towards 1721 with a rectangular plant and reduced dimensions, with the interior worshiping profusely with plasterwork and paintings.

The presbytery is covered by octagonal lantern to the outside and circular to the interior, with a great wealth of ornaments based on polychrome plaster that cover it completely, stands on a vaulted vault, where we can see pictorial compositions that alternate with golden wood applications that in some sites merge with the altarpiece.

Above the access bay there is a choir on whose sides there are pointed horseshoe blind arches inserted in other polylobulated arches; On both sides of the choir are two small rooms, one of them being a small library and the one on the right of the staircase. In this wall at the feet there is a large rose window through which light enters the room.
The exterior of the temple, quite spectacular, shows the Mudejar influence more clearly. The exterior has three covers, the main one located at the foot of the central nave communicates with Santa Catalina and Juan de Mesa streets, the one on the Gospel side at Santa Catalina street and Plaza de los Terceros, the façade at the head of the church. Plaza Ponce de León and the one on the side of the Epistle to Juan de Mesa Street.
The facade has the same layout as the interior of the temple if we talk about its structure. In the center is the main portal, which originates from the old parish church of Santa Lucia. The cover, is configured in advance with respect to the wall of the church, is stone, with archivolts, with different decoration being the outer diamond tips and saw teeth, the jambs have long baquetones, and in each lean two overalls superimposed that carry paths sculptures, the set is finished off with a small one with dogs, precedent of the eave that so wide diffusion had later. On the cornice there is a large rosette circumscribed by diamond tips that gives light to the interior of the central nave.
Between this cover there is an atrium in whose left lateral wall a pointed horseshoe arch appears, being the entrance to the church in the shape of a polilobulated horseshoe arch.
The facade on the side of the Gospel is the one that has undergone the most changes in its history. The first thing we can see in this ship, is a small curved apse of exposed brick, decorated with small polylobed arches supported by small columns that do not reach the ground since they start from a horizontal listel. Next, we observe the arrangement of the lateral nave wire with the central building forming almost a single and continuous roof. In this area an architrave front door opens and lacks decoration whose functionality is to go out and enter the processional steps of the brotherhoods of the temple. Next, the perimeter walls of the Sagrario chapel are finished with a lantern of exuberant decoration that contrasts with the sobriety of the rest of the building. It has an octagonal plan and presents on each of its sides a semicircular vane with its spandrels decorated with vegetal scrolls, these are flanked by Corinthian pilasters on which an architrave with smooth frieze and molded cornice on which sits the thread from the pilasters a small pedestal run on which a flamer is placed. From the center emerges the cupulín with eight nerves between which the decoration of white and blue tiles is distributed, finishing off the whole by a sculpture of the Faith. The windows of the exterior walls are decorated with ceramic motifs alluding to the Eucharist. The structural and decorative elements are painted in almagra while the smooth surfaces in cream tones, which accentuates the mobility effect of the baroque.

Regarding the facade of the head presents a strange overlapping of volumes, as they are arranged in stepping upward to the nave of the Gospel a series of new constructions, dependencies of the temple, surrounding the polygonal apse that above rises in height highlighting the dogs from the cornice, its covering in tiles and a large attic window. In addition, the lantern of the sacramental chapel that emerges triangular in balance with the tower on the opposite side is observed.
The façade on the side of the Epistle presents the smooth walls of this wall in which a single span of light opens onto the nave, a portal, the chapel of the Exaltation and the tower. The cover, made in brick, has a simple structure, has a pointed opening framed by a kind of alfiz.
Next to it is the chapel of the Exaltation, attached to the tower is also manifested outside, its walls are built in clean brick where narrow windows are opened, two on each side, framed by horseshoe arches pointed with their noses and turn for a geometric molding. The roof is formed by a roof with its parapet in which the volume of the vault can be seen.
The tower, is located on the south flank of the church, almost at the head of the nave of the Epistle and attached to the previous chapel, is built with ashlars the lower area and brick upper, is Mudejar style , quadrangular and consists of two bodies, the top is topped with a parapet of serrated battlements that conceal a small dome, underneath it houses the bells body open to each of the four sides by a pointed horseshoe hole inscribed in its corresponding alfiz, the lower body or cane is the largest, is decorated with small ornamental mullions of polylobulated arches and alfiz, under them a large panel with ataurique decoration inside which is inscribed a small blind window of polylobed arch on the side from west, and on the south flank a small loophole opens in the center of a pointed horseshoe arch. The interior is of central machón, being used in the cover of the hollow esquifadas vaults rectangular, ochavadas and of edge, formed by two pointed guns, elements these that evidence a construction of century XIV. The box of stairs up to a height of three meters is cylindrical, becoming after a square section.
The walls of the building are whitewashed in various shades, in the façades of the apse and laso of the Gospel are presented in yellow albero and the horizontal and vertical structural elements in red almagra; the walls on the side of the Epistle whitewashed as well as those on the façade of the feet, while the portals, the chapel of the Exaltation and the tower are shown first in stone, and the rest in brick.

In the sixteenth century the building had a series of modifications and additions, such as the funeral chapel.
In the 17th century, the Main Altarpiece and the Rosario chapel were built, but the most important of the modifications is the Royal Chapel, designed by the architect Leonardo de Figueroa, being one of the most important jewels of Sevillian Baroque architecture.