If there is something that characterizes Andalusia, it is its union with Christianity and specifically with the Catholic cult. Their traditions in many cases are based on the Roman religion, as in the case of their pilgrimages, Holy Week and Christian dogmas settled in the region since centuries ago as the case of the Immaculate Conception due to different historical processes. For this reason, the region has scattered everywhere numerous temples for worship of all sizes, such as churches, chapels and chapels of all styles and buildings, however, as in the vast majority of Spanish regions or Europe, including Naturally, cathedrals stand out.
The construction of the same, unlike in the rest of Europe, occurred in later centuries, due to the eight centuries of Muslim culture that evidently could not erect this type of majestic temples. However, in the centuries following the so-called Reconquista, the influence of the Roman Church and the power it exerted in this region (case of the Inquisition or Counter-Reformation anti-Protestantism), many cathedrals were erected in different Andalusian cities. that in some cases they constituted majestic works if not of a style, if a mixture of several due to the different political and cultural moments during the time of their construction that in the majority of the cases exceeded a century.
In Andalusia, they are not only the main seats of the dioceses or archdioceses for the worship of the vast majority of the inhabitants of the locality, but because of the tradition of Holy Week, they are the places of procession of the different brotherhoods that carry out the penance stations in the Semana Andaluza.
In this Post, we will talk about the cathedrals of Andalusia, as monuments mixed of a religious feeling and furniture heritage that in some cases is of Humanity.
1. Cathedral of Seville: It constitutes the second greater temple of the Catholicism (behind San Pedro of Rome similar to the Cathedral of Colony). The example of the Sevillian cathedral, is a clear reference to a mixture of styles rather than different, although originally was made in late Gothic style. The cathedral is built on the remains of the Almohad Major Mosque of which the courtyard of Abluciones (Patio de los Naranjos) and its well-known Giralda bell tower which was the greater Minaret with a height of about one hundred meters. It began to be constructed at the beginning of century XV at the time that the mosque was demolished. Its Latin cross, its vaults of Aristas, stained glass windows and pillars make it the largest building of this style. However, the cathedral was enlarged in the following century with a neighboring building in Renaissance style, where you can see paintings of Murillo and the bell tower, was the work of Hernán Ruiz III. In the nineteenth century, several doors were added in neo-Gothic style, following the pattern of Violec le Duc, prevailing in those years. The cathedral is the center of the procession of Holy Week and has the tombs of the kings Ferdinand III the Saint, his son Alfonso X the Wise and Christopher Columbus, as well as the patron saint Virgin of the Kings, carving of the thirteenth century.
2. Málaga Cathedral: The Renaissance and Baroque mixed building began to be built in the 16th century, whose architects were Diego de Siloe and the well-known Andrés de Vandelvira. The today still unfinished cathedral (one of the towers is unfinished), shows a cover with columns of Corinthian and Solomonic type with red marble doors. Its apse with rounded windows do not show great decoration giving prominence to the columns and the light that is accessed. The interior is formed by three naves with vaults that make them one of the tallest buildings in Andalusia, as well as their towers rising to more than eighty meters high. The construction of the same was on the remains of an old mosque and was initially made in Gothic Mudejar format and from which we can see the remains of internal courtyards of the Islamic era. The cathedral has organized visits on roofs and we remember that it is the central place for the processions of the magnificent Holy Week of the city.
3. Cathedral of Granada. Another magnificent example of a Renaissance building, with Baroque additions and whose construction was contemporary to other Renaissance buildings in the Nasrid city such as the palace of Charles V in the Alhambra. The building was built on the remains of the old Great Mosque, and in part of its construction followed the Herrerian style, the last part of the Renaissance. Diego de Siloe was also in charge of the works of the original Renaissance building, emphasizing in the construction the columns and vaults of great quality and restored. The cathedral itself, semicircular floor highlights its central chapel and adjacent chapels, highlighting Chapel of the Angustias, Chapel of the former and others that contain paintings and sculptures of Baroque type as several immaculate and works of Alonso Cano and Juan de Bank. Another of the chapels, perhaps the most important, is the Royal Chapel, where the remains of the Catholic Monarchs, their daughter Juana and her husband Felipe el Hermoso are found.
4. Cathedral of Cádiz: it represents an example of Baroque cathedral, in a city that did not have a great cathedral (if we ignore the old Gothic cathedral) dedicated to a marine city and that came to have influence in the times of the American adventure. Its name is dedicated to the dedication of the Holy Cross, with Baroque style whose construction began in the eighteenth century using nearby materials such as marble, stone and oyster stone in some external areas. It is designed as three vaulted naves as ambulatory and numerous columns of Corinthian type that give it a spectacular appearance. The temple owns several domes, emphasizing two: the cupola of the cruise, composed by a drum and hemispherical cap; It sits on pendentives and on the outside is covered by golden tiles that lend great luminosity during the day.
5. Cathedral of Almería: Renaissance example with the exception of having a transition between the late Gothic before reaching the Renaissance with Baroque and Rococo additions a posteriori. Its structure is reminiscent of a fortress, and possibly it had that function in view of its strategic situation and possible attacks by Berber pirates. Its original architect was not like Diego de Siloe. Its main door wants to show great majesty and a message of religious greatness, becoming a living transmitter of messages and religious icons. On the outer wall of this chapel is the so-called Sol de Portocarrero , which over time has become a symbol of the city. It is a bas-relief located at the head, on the eastern side, and represents a radiant anthropomorphic sun with ribbons.
6. Cathedral of Jaén: The cathedral of the olive city, is a reference in the work of Andrés de Vandelvira and a classic example of Baroque, Latin cross plan, with three naves with flat apse, side chapels and central transept. Like many other Andalusian cathedrals and following the example of burying the Muslim past, was erected and consecrated to the Virgin of the Assumption shortly after being conquered Jaén by the Christian troops in the thirteenth century. Its main Baroque façade, its neoclassical choir stand out, and inside it is guarded as relic the canvas of the Face of Jesus, Holy Face, known as La Veronica, whose Legend indicates that it is the canvas where Santa Veronica wipes her face bloody of the Lord. The cathedral aspires to be a World Heritage Site.
7. Catedral de Jerez: Call of San Salvador, is a work with a mixture of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque styles, which was erected on the old mosque and whose Gothic structure retains the buttresses and buttresses of this style and a transverse nave. The main façade boasts a triple door, and is adorned with Baroque motifs and imagery, as well as the two side doors, called Visitation and Incarnation and stained glass windows. As a work to highlight, we indicate that his museum has a pictorial jewel belonging to Zurbaran called La Virgen Niña. It is the nerve center of Holy Week Jerezana.
8. Catedral de Huelva: founded in the 17th century by the Dukes of Medina Sidonia as Convent of La Merced, the Huelva cathedral, similar to its Andalusian sisters, mixes Baroque and a late Renaissance with colonial and conventual flavor. The outer part is Baroque, being its main cover, inspiration for the colonial Baroque that would extend by the New world. Its interior is of Renaissance style, highlighting a major altarpiece presided by highlights the Virgin and Child made by Juan Martínez Montañés, but this is not the only work of the great image maker since the Main Chapel has its stellar work Virgen de la Cinta, 1616. But we must not forget the altarpieces attributed to the Circle of John of Mesa and images of Christ from the Gaditan-Genoese school as Christ of Jerusalem and Good Journey (crucified) and Our Father Jesus of the Chains.
9. Baza Cathedral: the oldest part of it is the lower part of the tower, which belonged to the old minaret of the 12th century mosque. Its construction on them, corresponds most to the Renaissance style, being another example of Andres de Vandelvira who made a masterpiece although he died before seeing it finished and was completed by his circle. If the building itself is fully Renaissance, with columns, arches and influences of Italian type, the interior with its altarpieces and chapels, has Baroque style. In one of the chapels located next to the entrance is the Brotherhood of the Supper (Baeza) Brotherhood of the Supper, a space in the interior and at the foot of the temple where all the processional images of this Brotherhood are shown, as well as its corporate standard.
10. Mosque -Cathedral of Cordoba: we must not forget the Caliphate temple, since although most of it is dedicated to the old mosque of the Caliphate era, it was built on an old Visigothic church from the 6th century, of which there are remains in situ, and later to the conquest by Fernando III, in century XIII, was reconverted to Cristino temple, being constructed in the interior structures of cupolas and vaults of edges of gothic style with a great contrast with the art of the caliphs. The Renaissance also sneaks into its corners as, the bell tower of Hernán Ruiz III, taking advantage of the old minaret, the Treasure of the cathedral has a collection of portapaces, chalices and copones of gold and silver as well as large crosses of precious materials.
Cathedral Mosque of Cordoba
This is the recommended itinerary for the visits to the Magnificent Churches of the different capitals of Andalusia, but you will not be able to enjoy them until you have access and walk through them, contemplating their artistic richness or enjoying a spiritual communion.