Church of Saint Nicholas of la Villa

  The Church of San Nicolás de la Villa Located in the city of Córdoba, in (Spain), was founded in the thirteenth century shortly after the conquest of Fernando III the Saint. Its beginning is of the Gothic-Mudejar type, from which the primitive Gothic-Mudejar structure with an almost square floor plan is preserved, with three naves without a transept, however, over the centuries new elements have been added. One of these additions is the main doorway, which was the work of Hernán Ruiz II, built in the 16th century with the Renaissance and Mannerist style of that time. The tower is of military type, beginning its construction at the time of the Catholic Monarchs, on the remains of an earlier Islamic minaret. The transformations were not there and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the church also had modifications in the tower, covers, covers of the two lateral naves, as well as other buildings to which a baroque structure has been given to the whole built. This temple is the seat of the Brotherhood of La Sentencia. As we have indicated, the Parish Church of San Nicolás de la Villa is an example of the different artistic styles that have come together over time. The temple has three naves with rectangular and flat headers. The central nave being the deepest and widest than the lateral ones, is covered with wooden armor with influence of Mannerist type and with a plot of large octagons linked with smaller squares, all of them decorated with polychrome motifs. The three naves are separated by cruciform pillars, with semi-attached columns that serve as a support for the pointed and bent arches. Parallel to the central nave are pilasters that serve as support for pointed blind arches that turn in the upper part of the wall. Covered with arched vaults with keys decorated with vegetable motifs in stucco, from the Baroque period, there are two lateral naves. Two sections of quadripartite ribbed vaults cover its head. The frescoes decorate the wall of the nave of the Espistola presenting as theme The Prayer in the Garden, whose pyramidal composition shows Christ in the center, kneeling and looking towards the sky where an angel is holding the Cross. On the left, seated, San Pedro is located and with two sleeping apostles, while at the back of the landscape a group of characters point to Christ. The decoration ends with a set of scrolls, bouquets and garlands. The main chapel has a rectangular shape and a flattened roof, and its three sections are covered with quadripartite ribbed vaulting as the previously indicated naves. It opens to the central nave through a triumphal arch of ogival profiling. The headers of the three ships communicate with each other through pointed and flared openings. The Baptismal Chapel located in the nave of the Gospel, whose construction, made under the patronage of Don Leopoldo de Austria, was carried out by Hernán Ruiz II, and the sculptures by Sebastián Peñarredonda. It is rectangular in shape, with a series of smooth walls until it reaches the frieze, with naked angels of moved attitudes that decorate the space, which act as a start to the four arches that support the pseudo-elliptical vault on pendentives, which covers the space . In the angles, on the scallops presents four characters of the Old Testament. In the center of the vault appears the image of the Virgin of the Assumption surrounded by angels, likewise, in the frontal area of ​​the chapel, the relief of the Baptism of Christ. The cover of entrance to the chapel from the nave, consists of a vain carpanel inscribed in a rectangle, bounded by two pilasters ending in an entablature on which is located a avenerada hornacina, inside which houses the images of San Juan and of Christ, representing the iconographic theme of Baptism. The set is decorated with profuse decoration of grotesques. In the sixteenth century the final configuration of the body formed by the sacristy and ante-sacristy is completed; being this last dependence of rectangular plant, constructed with walls of regular ashlar masonry, giving access from the lateral portico and from the interior of the church. The quadrangular sacristy is covered with Mudejar alfarje rectangular casetones that alternates with squares, leaving a central space that is decorated with lacería and muqarnas. This cover originally covered the ship of the epistle moving to this place in the eighteenth century. It has a spiral staircase that connects the mezzanine with the ante-sacristy is built of stone. The church is formed by stone blocks with rope and blight with two exterior facades located on the north and south fronts. The front of the south facade is the oldest in the church and gives access to the nave of the Epistle. It consists of a pointed and flared vain, composed of ten bulls topped with a line of diamond tips. It is preceded by a portico built in the fifteenth century, whose fronts have openings of half a point inscribed on alfiz, on stems and capitals of cartage. The main entrance, located in the north area, was built in the 16th century by Hernán Ruiz II. It consists of two bodies; the first one in the form of a half-point vain on jambs of perforated pilasters, flanked by columns with a fluted shaft, on a plinth and Corinthian capital, on which rests a entablature finished on its sides with pinnacles. The second body has a central niche, inside which houses the titular saint, flanked by pilasters and an upper entablature crowned with a triangular pediment. The tower was probably built on the remains of an ancient Islamic minaret, in the fifteenth century, until 1496 and whose author is believed to be Gonzalo Rodríguez. S The first body is quadrangular and on one of its fronts it has a commemorative tombstone in which the date of its construction is indicated. The second is polygonal. There is a transition between both bodies that occurs in two of the four angles, with pyramidal structures on which the allegorical figures of Patience and Obedience appear. Also, on one of its fronts presents the shield of Bishop Manrique. The drum is crowned with a listel with unique battlements topped by stacking roofs. The tower ends in the eighteenth century with a body of bells square base covered with pyramidal roof over molded cornice and iron railing. Throughout the 18th century, profound transformations were made in the temple, the most important being the cover that communicates the nave of the Epistle with the sacristy, the work of Alonso Gómez de Sandoval. It is carved in red and black marbles and consists of a flat vain, covered with a carved wooden door, flanked by columns and split semicircular pediment.